The UK chemical industry is a vitalpart of our economy. It accountsfor 2% of UK GDP and 10% ofmanufacturing gross value added.It is UK manufacturing’s tive summaryIntroduction, the purpose of the roadmapDevelopment of the roadmapProcess stepsTrends and driversSocial trends and driversTechnological trends and driversEconomic trends and driversEnvironmental trends and driversPolitical trends and driversFuture legislationFeatures, attributes and technologyimpactFeatures and attributes by sGrouping of sector goalsIdentifying key goalsMapping of technology areas to key goalsMapping of technology areas to featuresand attributesInteractions between technology areasKey technologies for each ogy roadmapsGreen product designFeedstocksNovel reactionsNovel catalysisSolventsProcess improvementSeparation technologyEnabling technologiesPriority activity areasExploiting existing technologiesDeveloping complete packagesfor industryDemonstrating the business caseGreen product design forthe chemical industryKey messages for government, industryand academiaNext stepsReferencesAppendicesAppendix 1: Future legislationAppendix 2: Green Chemical TechnologyareasAppendix 3: Core 5151
ForewordMaps are very useful things.We can try to find our way aroundthe countryside without one,but simply following local signsmay be foolhardy. For a trip fromA to Z, a map is a must.They’ve been around a long time.Maps started off showing just thegeographical world around us – a meansof sharing experience with others andremembering for ourselves. Now mappinghas gone well beyond this. We mapeverything – including technology –without limiting ourselves to thedimensions of physical space. A technologyroadmap seeks to set out how an area oftechnology will develop with time. We canuse it to chart a way ahead. Like itsgeographical forebears, it helps us avoidobvious dangers and dead-ends.Industry has already used technologyroadmaps extensively to co-ordinate theactivities of the whole supply chain and togreen chemical technology 2004 roadmapprovide detail in focused areas ofdevelopment. This roadmap – of GreenChemical Technology – is a first editionand certainly contains errors. It will getbetter as more people contribute, or asthose who did contribute – at the invitationof the Crystal Faraday Partnership – learnmore. The fact that it exists at all is animportant step for chemistry-basedindustries, as it lays out the current stateof knowledge in a format accessible to all.Its roots are in UK experience but thecontents do not recognise nationalboundaries, so it has global utility.You can apply this document to yourown strategic objectives and planaccordingly. Equally, the experiencedCrystal team is ready to help you use itcorporately or in a specific technologicalarea. Crystal takes responsibility for thecore document, but is keen to capture allthe options and implications. So why notget in touch?Professor David BottThe industry’s productspervade our society andare critical to the qualityof life currently enjoyed bythe public. A thriving andsustainable chemical industryis vital to our future.3
Executive summaryThe UK chemical industry is a vital partof our economy. It accounts for 2% ofUK GDP and 10% of manufacturinggross value added. It is UKmanufacturing’s largest exporter.The industry’s products pervade oursociety and are critical to the qualityof life currently enjoyed by the public.A thriving and sustainable chemicalindustry is vital to our future.To secure that future the chemicalindustry needs to reduce its overallenvironmental impact. Public and politicalpressures plus the physical limitations ofthe ecosphere mean that the chemicalindustry must change. It cannot continueat current levels of impact.Green chemical technology is aroute to a more sustainable chemicalindustry. The OECD defines greenchemistry as:“the design, manufacture,and use of environmentally benignchemical products and processesthat prevent pollution, produce lesshazardous waste and reduceenvironmental and human healthrisks.”Green chemical technology avoidsthe use of non-renewable resources,reduces energy and material use, reduceswaste and lowers environmental andhuman health impacts.The Crystal Faraday Partnership hasbeen set up to be the lead organisationfor the research, development, andimplementation of green chemicaltechnology and practices in the UKchemical and allied industries.Crystal has carried out thistechnology roadmapping study to identifythe future needs of the chemical industryfor green chemical technology and todevelop a strategy for their furtherdevelopment and implementation.4The trends and drivers affecting thechemical industry have been reviewedunder five headings (the STEEP model)[see section 3]: Social Technological Economic Environmental PoliticalThe key messages from the social trendsand drivers are that the reputation of thechemical industry for environmentalresponsibility is low, and that consumerswish to avoid ‘chemicals’. The industrymust be seen to tackle these issues bydeveloping low-risk products and lowimpact manufacturing. Failure to do socould lead to the public withdrawing theindustry’s ‘licence to operate’.At the same time there is a growingskills gap caused by demographics andthe low reputation of the industry.Technical trends will support themove towards zero-waste and zeroimpact manufacturing. Greater recyclingand use of renewable raw materials willreduce unsustainable materialconsumption, and green product designwill reduce the lifetime environmentalimpact and cost of products.Developments in computing capability willplay an important role in creating a moresustainable chemical industry.Economic trends are pushing theindustry in highly developed countriestowards added value ‘effect’ chemicals asbulk chemical production moves to lessdeveloped countries as part of their ownindustrialisation. In most sectors chemicalcompanies will become smaller, faster andmore flexible focusing on the knowledgecontent of products. As chemicalcompanies are forced to account for thewhole-life costs of a product, businessmodels will change to emphasise greenerproducts and processes, as well as productre-use, re-manufacture and recycling.
green chemical technology 2004 roadmapEnvironmental drivers will focus theindustry’s attention on the threat of climatechange, and the need to use resourcesefficiently and to switch to renewableresources. The industry will need to bebetter at understanding the whole lifecycle impact of products, and developingroutes to re-use and recycle materials.Political trends impact the industryprincipally through legislation. Increasingregulation, both internationally and withinthe European Union, has been a powerfulforce for change in the chemical industryand this will continue. Green chemicaltechnology is essential if the industry is tomeet the demands of society.There are eight areas of greenchemical technology that can improve thesustainability of the chemical industry andaddress the issues raised by the STEEPanalysis: Green product design –minimising environmental impact Feedstocks – substitutingrenewable for non-renewable Novel reactions Novel catalysis Solvents Process improvement Separation technology Enabling technologiesThese technology areas can be used todeliver benefits in nine different areasidentified as critical by the chemical industry: Reduce product toxicity Reduce environmental impact ofa product Reduce materials needed todeliver a specific level ofperformance Reduce materials used tomanufacture the product Reduce use of non-renewableresources Reduce waste and emissionsduring manufacture Reduce energy used tomanufacture the product Reduce risk and hazard frommanufacturing processes Reduce life-cycle cost ofchemical plantLooking at the desired benefits and thetechnical opportunities we can identifythe key technical developments that willhave the most impact on developing asustainable chemical industry over theshort to medium term [see Section 5].The key opportunities for eachtechnology area are summarised in the tableon page 6 [see also table 5.1, page 36].Shaded boxes are technologies ready forimplementation today that need support tobreakthrough to mainstream application.Unshaded boxes are technologies that needfurther development.5
Executive summary continuedGreen nologiesAn integratedapproach to lifecycle designImproved routesto olefins fromalkanesCombinedbio- andchemicalprocessesSolid supportedcatalysts for keyreactionsWiderexploitation ofclosed loopsystemsExploit processsynthesisBetter cost andtechnical dataon existingmembranesIntegratedapproaches tomodellingExtend recyclingfrom lubricantssolvents andcatalystsImprovedchemistries forrecycling plasticsWhich greenerreagents can beimplemented?Practical y sources(radio frequencyand microwave)Bettermembranes foruse in organicsolventsFast, onlinechemicalanalysisDevelop designprotocols for recycle and re-useBreaking downwaste streamsto feedstocksMembranedriven reactionsChiral synthesisfor key reactionsMake ionicliquids apractical toolSpinning discreactorsReduce costsof affinitychromatographyEasier life-cycleanalysis forcomparingoptionsBetter ways tomake small andnano-particlesWays to developand scale emesReal-timemeasurementand controlDevelopefficient bioseparations forfermentationsystemsExploiting HTE(high throughputexperimentation)Integrateproduct andprocess designDevelop betterunderstandingof downstreamchemical useNew reactors –microchannel,catalyticmembrane etcExploit smalland nanoparticles toreduce materialintensityWiderexploitation ofprocessmodellingHigher fidelity,easier to usemodellingAs well as specific technology areas thatneed to be implemented or furtherdeveloped, there are some general issuesthat need to be given priority in order tohave the most impact on thesustainability of the industry. They aredealt with in Section 6.6ImprovedHTE forsynthesis andperformancetestingExploit smalland nanoparticles toreduce materialintensity
green chemical technology 2004 roadmap Exploiting existing technologiesThere are many technologies ‘on theshelf’ that we know can make a realdifference to the environmentalimpact of the chemical industry,particularly through improvingmanufacturing. These technologiesreduce both impact and costs andare economically self-sustaining. Weneed to get these off the shelf andinto use. Developing complete packagesfor industryIndustry needs more than ademonstration of a new technology.It needs the technology, plus theknowledge of how to implement it,plus the data to evaluate thebusiness case. We need to createcomplete technology/knowledgepackages for industry. Demonstrating the business caseGreen chemical technology is toooften seen as a response toregulatory and public pressure, notas a better and more profitable wayto operate. We need to collect,organise and communicate theevidence to industry. Green product design forthe chemical industryThe chemical industry is not asadvanced as some other sectors inknowing how to design lowerimpact products. The industry needsto create its own capability for greenproduct design.From the roadmap there are some keymessages for stakeholders in thedevelopment of green chemical technologyand the development of a sustainablechemical industry [see Section 7].Government Demonstrators are important,but we need to create completepackages for industry. There is a gap betweenuniversities and user industriesthat needs to be bridged bytechnologyimplementers/integrators. Be consistent and patient infunding research. This is animportant process that will taketime. A consistent approach is key. Regulation has a powerful effecton business decisions. There is aneed for consistency acrossdifferent regulatory regimes andfor better communication ofplanned legislation. Government procurement cancreate market pull forenvironmentally superior products.Industry Green chemical technology is aroute to improved profitability,not just something we are forcedto do. We must engage with the otherstakeholders. Let the world knowwhat the industry needs fromgreen chemical technology. Being too conservative is a majorbusiness risk. There is realcompetitive advantage to begained from green chemicaltechnologies. It should be on thebusiness strategy agenda.Academia We need better multidisciplinaryworking between chemistry andchemical engineering. Publicise academia’s capabilities.Find a showcase for technologydevelopments. Industry needs to know the scopeand boundaries of technology.What it can and can’t do. Teach the workforce of thefutureabout green chemical technologyand how to use it.The roadmap demonstrates that realeconomic, societal and environmentalbenefits can be obtained through greateruse of existing and emerging greenchemical technology. It can play animportant role in developing a sustainableand thriving chemical industry in the UK.The world changes quickly, and thetechnological, economic and politicalenvironment will change. This is version 1of the roadmap, and it will be updated fromtime to time to reflect new developments.7
1. IntroductionThe Crystal Faraday Partnership has been set up to bethe lead organisation for the research, development,and implementation of green chemical technology andpractices in the UK chemical and allied industries.Crystal is a knowledge transfer company forgreen chemical technology accessing the considerableresources of its industri