Welcome to the Mongolian Language.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007Basic Mongolian Expressions for Peace Corps Trainees in MongoliaList of tracks:Track 1.Track 2.Track 3Track 4Track 5Track 6.Track 7Track 8Track 9Track 10Track 11Track 12Track 13Track 14Track 15Welcome to the Mongolian Language . p 2Mongolian Alphabet . p 3Phonetic drill . p 4Greetings and Saying farewell . p 5Expressing politeness p 6Asking for personal information . p 6Asking about language abilities .p7Asking questions .p7Can I / May I? . p 8Expressing likes/dislikes and food references . . p 8Expressing your feelings and wishes . . p 9Emergency and safety . p 9For your vocabulary . p 9Numbers . p11Listening practice . . p12The text accompanies the following fifteen (15) audio tracks: Track 1. mp3Track 2. mp3Track 3. mp3Track 4. mp3Track 5. mp3Track 6. mp3Track 7. mp3Track 8. mp3Track 9. mp3Track 10. mp3Track 11. mp3Track 12. mp3Track 13. mp3Track 14. mp3Track 15. mp3(Time: 4:05)(Time: 2:05)(Time: 2:33)(Time: 1:30)(Time: 0:31)(Time: 1:13)(Time: 0:46)(Time: 1:33)(Time: 0:31)(Time: 2:49)(Time: 1:30)(Time: 1:00)(Time: 3:35)(Time: 2:29)(Time: 1:47)Page 1 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.TRACK 1.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007WELCOME TO THE MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE.Thank you for taking the time to study the Mongolian Language. The Mongolian language isconsidered one of the more difficult languages from the countries the Peace Corps serves. However, itwon’t be that difficult once you figure out some of the basics elements of the language.Mongolian is the primary language of Mongolia. By origin, Mongolian is one of the languages in theMongol group from the Altaic family, a language family which includes Turkish, Manchurian-Tungus,Japanese, and Korean.Modern Mongolian, based on the Khalkh dialect, developed following the Mongolian People’s Revolutionin 1921. The introduction of a new alphabet in the 1940s developed along with a new stage inMongolia’s national literary language. Mongolians still use two types of writing: the classical script andthe Cyrillic alphabet. The classical Mongolian alphabet, which is written vertically, is a unique script usedby speakers of all the various dialects for about a thousand years. In spite of increasing interest in usingonly the classical alphabet, along with the decision by Parliament to use it for official papers, the majorityof Mongolian people use the Cyrillic alphabet, which was adopted in the early 1940s.The Mongolian language is classified as agglutinative (from the Latin ‘agglutinate’-‘to stick on’).The most important characteristics of agglutination are:1. The word stem doesn’t change; instead, grammatical changes are made by adding(or sticking on) suffixes to the word stem.2. Every suffix and case ending expresses only one grammatical meaning. Mongoliandoes not have prepositions. A lot of English prepositions are expressed in Mongolianwith a case. The cases demonstrate the kind of relationship the two words have.Other characteristic features of the language are:1. Word order of a sentence. Subjects and objects precede verbs. Verbs are often locatedat the end of a sentence: Subject – object - verb2. Genders are based on vowels (masculine, feminine, or neutral). Vowel harmony is themain law of vowels.3. The absence of subject/verb agreement and plurals (in most cases). It’s common to dropthe subject if it’s implied. For example:What did do yesterday? Instead of ‘What did you do yesterday?’Read some books, washed clothes and cleaned my house. Instead ofI read some books, washed clothes and cleaned my house.4. Compared with Indo-European languages, nouns that act as verbs are much moreprevalent than normal nouns.5. Shift of stress. Stress in Mongolian usually falls on the first syllable of a word.With the following basic survival phrases we’ll try to give you a brief introduction to the Mongolianlanguage. By reading the following pages, and listening to the tape while repeating the phrases andwords, you’ll see what the Mongolian language looks like and how it sounds.If you choose to come to Mongolia, you will be provided with more information about theMongolian language and you’ll get a lot of resources to help with your studies. You will also receieveintensive instruction in Mongolian by native speakers during Pre-Service Training. You can use thefollowing books, which are available in the USA: MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR by Rita Kullmann and D.Tserenpil COLLOQUAL MONGOLIAN by Alan J.K. Sanders and Jantsangiin Bat-Ireedui Lonely planet MONGOLIAN PHRASE BOOKYou also can check other resources from the websites: Mongolian Society pronunciation of the Mongolian dialogues and phrases on these recordings is a little slower thannormal speech. This is intended to be helpful to beginning students of the language.Page 2 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.TRACK 2.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007MONGOLIAN ALPHABETThe Mongolian alphabet is comprised of 35 letters. glish soundApproximate sound in EnglishwordLike ‘a short a’bvg (ck)dyyojdzefatherbirdvasegetdayyeah (ye)yo-yojeanszookl (lateral-fricative)mn (ng)o (open)o (closed)pr (rolled)stu (open)u (closed)fh (hindi)tschshshcheyuyahard signsoft signkilolawmodernname - hanglawtoneparkrathersingtalloldsoupphotoloch (Scottish) / hornItscheeseShortEnglish channelgateyouyachtcity / easyThese sounds especially are approximate only; an equivalent sound in English is unusual,or unlikely. When you arrive in Mongolia you will begin to hear these letter sounds more clearly.The sound shown here is close enough to work during the beginning of your studies.Page 3 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007PHONETIC DRILLSTRACK 3.1. Listen to the alphabet as many times as you need.2. Listen and repeat the alphabet below. There are some letters which are written the same asin English, but pronounced differently.A [ah]B [ve]H [en]P [er]X [heh]E [ye]C [es]У [oi]3. Listen to the sounds of the alphabet and repeat them. Some letters have similarpronunciation to each other.Ж [dze]З [ze]Ц [tse]Ч [che]Ш [sh]X [heh]Г [g]К [ka]Д [de]Т [te]Б [be]В [ve]П [pe]Ф [f]О [o]Ө [ồ]У [h]Ү [ữ]А [ah]Э [a]И [ea]C [es]4. Short and long vowels are very important and they change the meaning of a word.Ав - аавto take - fatherнүх - нүүхhole - to moveсэр - сээрwake - backbonexол - xоолfar - mealул - уулsole - mountainөр - өөрdebts - different, else5. Listen to the words and repeat them.America / American- АмерикEngland / English- АнглиAsia / Asian- АзиEurope / European - ЕвропMongolia /Mongolian - МонголRussia / Russian- ОросChina /Chinese- ХятадFlorida- ФлоридаDollar- ДолларTugrik*- төгрөг(*Mongolian currency)Page 4 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007GREETINGS AND SAYING FAREWELL.TRACK 4.ENGLISHDialogue 1.The following greetings should be used between people meeting for the firsttime, seeing each other for the first time in a day, or in an official situation.A: - Hello, How are you?B: - Good. How are you?A: - Good.Dialogue 2.MONGOLIAN- Sain bainuu?- Sain. Sain bainuu?- Sain.- Сайн байна уу?- Сайн. Сайн байна уу?- Сайн.The following greetings are used frequently by young people and betweenfriends.A: - Hello? How are you?B: - Good. How are you?A: - Good.- Sainuu?- Sain. Sainuu?- Sain.- Сайн уу?- Сайн. Сайн уу?- Сайн.- Sain bainuu?- Sain. Sain bainuu?- Sain. Sonin yu bain?- Yumgui taivan.- Bayartai. Daraa uulzii.- Daraa uulzii.- Сайн байна уу?- Сайн. Сайн байна уу?- Сайн. Сонин юу байна?- Юмгүй, тайван.- Баяртай. Дараа уулзъя.- Дараа уулзъя.- Sainuu?- Sain. Sainuu?- Sain. Amidral yamarbain?- Dajgui.- Сайн уу?- Сайн. Сайн уу?- Сайн. Амьдрал ямарбайна?- Дажгүй.- Yu bain?- Taivan.- Ajil yamar baina?- Yahavdee.- Amidral yamar baina?- Mash sain.- Bayartai.- Bayartai.- Юу байна?- Tайван.- Ажил ямар байна?- Яахав дээ.- Амьдрал ямар байна?- Маш сайн.- Баяртай.- Баяртай.Dialogue 3.A: - Hello, How are you?B: - Hi, How are you?A: - Good. What’s new?B: - Nothing much.A: - Bye. See you later.B: - See you later.Dialogue 4.A: - Hello, How are you?B: - Hi, How are you?A: - Good. How’s your life?B: - It is OK.Dialogue 5A: - How are you?B: - I am fine.А: - How’s your work?B: - So so.A: - How’s your life?B: - It is very good.A: - Goodbye!B: - Bye!Culture note:When Americans first meet each other, they say “Nice to meet you.” Mongolians don’t sayanything like this at the beginning of a conversation.Page 5 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007EXPRESSING POLITENESS.TRACK 5.Dialogue 1A: - Thank you.B: - You are welcome.- Bayarllaa.- Zugair zugair.- Баярлалаа.- Зүгээр зүгээр.- Uuchlaarai.- Zugair zugair.- Уучлаарай.- Зүгээр зүгээр.- Che George munu?- Tiim. Be George- Чи Жорж мөн үү?- Тийм, би Жорж.- Che Amerikuu?- Ugui, Be Amerik bish.- Чи Америк уу?- Үгүй, Америk биш.Dialogue 2A: - I’m sorry. / Excuse me.B: - No problem.Dialogue 3A: - Are you George?B: - Yes, I am.Dialogue 4A: - Are you American?B: - No, I am not.TRACK 6.ASKING FOR PERSONAL INFORMATION.Dialogue 1A: - What’s your name?B: - My name is Sean.A: - Where did you come from?B: - I am from America.- Tanii* ner hen(g) be?- Minii ner Shon.- Ta haanaas irsen be?- Be Amerikaas irsen.- Таны нэр хэн бэ?- Миний нэр Шон.- Та хаанаас ирсэн бэ?- Би Америкаас ирсэн.- Taniig hen(g) gedeg wei?- Namaig Shon gedeg.- Be Amerik (hun).- Be Mongol (hun) bish.- Таныг хэн гэдэг вэ?- Намайг Шон гэдэг.- Би Америк (хүн).- Би Монгол (хүн) биш.- Ta heden(g) nastai wei?- Be khorin tavan nastai.- Ta yu hiideg wei?- Be angl helnii bagsh.- Be enkh taivnii korpsiinsain durin ajiltan.- Та хэдэн настай вэ?- Би хорин таван настай.- Та юу хийдэг вэ?- Би Англи хэлний багш.- Би Энх тайвын корпусынсайн дурын ажилтан.Dialogue 2A: - What’s your name?B: - My name is Sean.I am American.I am not Mongolian.Dialogue 3A: - How old are you?B: - I am 25 years old.**A: - What do you do?B: - I’m an English teacher.I am a PC Volunteer.*Tаны, таныг, та/tanii, taniig, ta/ - is addressed to someone who is older than you.** When Mongolians first meet foreigners, they typically ask many questions out of curiosity.Some of these questions may seem very personal. For example, they may ask your age or if you aremarried. To Americans, these types of questions may seem very forward initially, but they are quitecommon for Mongolians.Page 6 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.TRACK 7.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007ASKING ABOUT LANGUAGE ABILITIES.Dialogue 1A: - Do you speak English?B: - I know English well.Che** angliar yaridag uu?Be angel hel sain medne.Чи англиaр ярьдаг уу?Би англи хэл сайн мэднэ.A: - Do you know Mongolian?B: - I know a little Mongolian.Che** mongol hel medhuu?Be mongol hel jaahanmedne.Чи монгол хэл мэдэх үү?Би монгол хэл жаахан мэднэ.A: - How do you say itin Mongolian?Uuniig mongoloor uygeh wei?Үүнийг монголоор юу гэх вэ?B: - I’m sorry.I don’t know Mongolian.Uuchlaarai.Be Mongol hel medehgui.Уучлаарай.Би монгол хэл мэдэхгүй.Dialogue 2Dialogue 3A: - Do you understand?Che oilgoj bainuu?B: - I’m sorry. I don’t understand. Ohclaarai. Be oilgohguibain.I’m a foreigner.Be gadaad hun.**Чиний, чамайг, чиЧи ойлгож байна уу?Уучлаарай. Би ойлгохгүйбайна.Би гадаад хүн./chenii, chamaig, che/ -is addressed to someone who is younger than you.TRACK 8.ASKING QUESTIONS.What?What is this?What is that?Who?Who is he/she?Yu?En yu wei?Ter yu wei?Hen(g)?Ter hen(g) be?Юу?Энэ юу вэ?Тэр юу вэ?Хэн?Тэр хэн бэ?Where?Where is ?Where is the post office?Haan? haan baidag wei?Shohdan haan baidag wei?Хаана? . xаана байдаг вэ?Шуудан хаана байдаг вэ?To where?(go to )From where? (come from)Haashaa? (yavah)Haanaas? (ireh)Хаашаа? (явах)Хаанаас? ?Яагаад?Яаж?How much ? / How many?How much does it cost?How much is it?Heden(g)?En yamar unetei wei?En hed ve?Хэдэн?Энэ ямар үнэтэй вэ?Энэ хэд вэ?Page 7 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007CAN I / MAY I?TRACK 9.* The word ‘can’ has different meanings depending on context.Dialogue 1A: - May I come in?B: - Yes, you mayA: - I have a question.Orj bolhuu?Bolo*n.Nadad asuult bain.Орж болох уу?Болно.Нада асуулт байна.Nadad tuslan u?Za, tegii.Надад туслана уу?За, тэгье.Nadad tuslahgui yu?Uuchlaarai. Chadahguine .Надад туслахгүй юу?Уучлаарай. Чадахгүй нь.Dialogue 2A: - Can you help me?B: -SureDialogue 3A: - Can you help me?B: - No. I’m sorry. I can’t.* very short vowel-basically don’t say.TRACK 10.EXPRESSING LIKES/DISLIKES AND FOOD REFERENCES.It is very tasty.En ih amttai.Энэ их амттай.Are you hungry?I’m hungry.I’m not hungry.I’m full.Che ulsej bainuu?Be ulsej bain.Be ulsuugui bain.Be tsadsen.Чи өлсөж байна уу?Би өлсөж байна.Би өлсөөгүй байна.Би цадсан.Are you thirsty?I’m thirsty.I’m not thirsty.Che tsangaj bainuu?Be tsangaj bain.Be tsangaagui bain.Чи цангаж байна уу?Би цангаж байна.Би цангаагүй байна.What would you like to eat?I’d like rice.I like to eat rice.I don’t like to eat fat.Che yu idmeer bain?Be boudaa idmeer bain.Be boudaa idekh durtai.Be uukh idekh durgui.Чи юу идмээр байна?Би будаа идмээр байна.Би будаа идэх дуртай.Би өөх идэх дургүй.What would you like to drink?I’d like to drink water.I like to drink water.I don’t like to drink coffee.Che yu uumaar baina?Be us ohmeer bain.Be us ohkh durtai.Be koffee oukh durgui.Чи юу уумаар байна?Би ус уумаар байна.Би ус уух дуртай.Би кофе уух дургүй.Page 8 of 12

Welcome to the Mongolian Language.TRACK 11.Peace Corps Mongolia, 2007EXPRESSING YOUR FEELINGS AND WICHES.I’m happy.I’m