Status and Trends in the Educationof Racial and Ethnic Groups 2017NCES 2017-051U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Status and Trends in theEducation of Racial andEthnic Groups 2017JULY 2017Lauren Musu-GilletteCristobal de BreyJoel McFarlandWilliam HussarWilliam SonnenbergNational Center for Education StatisticsSidney Wilkinson-FlickerAmerican Institutes for ResearchNCES 2017-051U. S . D E PA R T M E N T O F E D U CAT I O N

U.S. Department of EducationBetsy DeVosSecretaryInstitute of Education SciencesThomas W. BrockCommissioner for Education ResearchDelegated Duties of the DirectorNational Center for Education StatisticsPeggy G. CarrActing CommissionerThe National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, andreporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect,collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conductand publish reports and specialized analyses of the meaning and significance of such statistics; assist state and localeducation agencies in improving their statistical systems; and review and report on education activities in foreigncountries.NCES activities are designed to address high-priority education data needs; provide consistent, reliable, complete,and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and report timely, useful, and high-quality data to the U.S.Department of Education, the Congress, the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data users, and thegeneral public. Unless specifically noted all information contained herein is in the public domain.We strive to make our products available in a variety of formats and in language that is appropriate to a variety ofaudiences. You, as our customer, are the best judge of our success in communicating information effectively. If you haveany comments or suggestions about this or any other NCES product or report, we would like to hear from you. Pleasedirect your comments toNCES, IES, U.S. Department of EducationPotomac Center Plaza (PCP)550 12th Street SWWashington, DC 20202July 2017The NCES Home Page address is NCES Publications and Products address is publication is only available online. To download, view, and print the report as a PDF file, go to the NCESPublications and Products address shown above.This report was prepared for the National Center for Education Statistics under Contract No. ED-IES-12-D-0002with American Institutes for Research. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not implyendorsement by the U.S. Government.Suggested CitationMusu-Gillette, L., de Brey, C., McFarland, J., Hussar, W., Sonnenberg, W., and Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2017). Statusand Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2017 (NCES 2017-051). U.S. Department of Education,National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved [date] from ContactLauren Musu-Gillette(202) [email protected]

HighlightsStatus and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challengesstudents face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, students in the racial/ethnicgroups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native,and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college in increasing numbers.Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicitypersist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.Demographics: Between 2000 and 2016, the percentage of U.S.children ages 5–17 who were White decreased from62 percent to 52 percent and the percentage who wereBlack decreased from 15 to 14 percent. In contrast,the percentage of school-age children from otherracial/ethnic groups increased: Hispanics, from 16 to25 percent; Asians, from 3 to 5 percent; and childrenof Two or more races, from 2 to 4 percent. Thepercentage of school-age American Indians/AlaskaNatives remained at 1 percent and the percentageof Pacific Islanders remained at less than 1 percentduring this time. (Indicator 1). In 2014, about 97 percent of children under age 18were born within the United States, compared with96 percent in 2004. The percentage of children bornwithin the United States was 5 percentage pointshigher in 2014 than in 2004 for Hispanic children(94 vs. 89 percent); in contrast, this percentage waslower in 2014 than in 2004 for Black children (97 vs.98 percent). (Indicator 2). In 2014, a higher percentage of Asian children underage 18 (82 percent) lived with married parents thanthe percentage of White children (73 percent), PacificIslander children (65 percent), Hispanic childrenand children of Two of more races (56 percent each),American Indian/Alaska Native children (43 percent),and Black children (33 percent) who lived withmarried parents. (Indicator 3). In 2012, a higher percentage of young children fromnonpoor families than from poor families regularlyreceived center-based care (34 vs. 20 percent). Thissame pattern was observed for White, Black, andHispanic young children. (Indicator 5). Between fall 2003 and fall 2013, the percentage ofstudents enrolled in public elementary and secondaryschools decreased for students who were White (from59 to 50 percent) and Black (from 17 to 16 percent).In contrast, the percentage increased for students whowere Hispanic (from 19 to 25 percent) and Asian/Pacific Islander (from 4 to 5 percent) during the sametime period. (Indicator 6 ). In 2013–14, the shares of Black and Hispanicstudents in public charter schools (27 and 30 percent,respectively) were greater than the shares of Blackand Hispanic students in traditional public schools(15 and 25 percent, respectively). However, the sharesof White and Asian/Pacific Islander students inpublic charter schools (35 and 4 percent, respectively)were less than the shares of White and Asian/PacificIslander students in traditional public schools (51 and5 percent, respectively). (Indicator 6 ). In 2014, about 4.7 million public school studentsparticipated in English language learner (ELL)programs. Hispanic students made up the majorityof this group (78 percent), with around 3.6 millionparticipating in ELL programs. (Indicator 7). The ELL program participation rate in public schoolsin 2014 for some racial/ethnic groups was lowerthan the total participation rate (9 percent). About7 percent of American Indian/Alaska Native students,2 percent of Black students, 2 percent of studentsof Two or more races, and 1 percent of Whitestudents participated in ELL programs. In contrast,the percentages of Hispanic (29 percent), Asian(20 percent), and Pacific Islander (15 percent) studentsparticipating in ELL programs were higher than theoverall percentage in 2014. (Indicator 7). In 2013–14, the percentage of students (i.e., childrenages 3–21) served under the Individuals withDisabilities Education Act (IDEA) was highest forAmerican Indian/Alaska Native students (17 percent),followed by Black students (15 percent), Whitestudents (13 percent), students of Two or more races(12 percent), Hispanic students (12 percent), PacificIslander students (11 percent), and Asian students(6 percent). (Indicator 8).In 2014, the percentage of children under age 18living in poverty based on the official poverty measurewas highest for Black children (37 percent), followedby Hispanic children (31 percent), and White andAsian children (12 percent each). (Indicator 4).Preprimary, Elementary, and SecondaryEducation Participation: In 2012, about 28 percent of children under 6 yearsold who were not enrolled in kindergarten regularlyreceived center-based care. The percentage of childrenwho regularly received center-based care was higherfor Black (34 percent), Asian (33 percent), and Whitechildren (29 percent) than for Hispanic children(22 percent). (Indicator 5).Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2017iii

Achievement: ivAt grade 4, the White-Black gap in reading narrowedfrom 32 points in 1992 to 26 points in 2015; theWhite-Hispanic gap in 2015 (24 points) was notmeasurably different from the gap in 1992. At grade8, the White-Hispanic gap narrowed from 26 pointsin 1992 to 21 points in 2015; the White-Black gap in2015 (26 points) was not measurably different fromthe gap in 1992. (Indicator 9).At grade 12, the White-Black achievement gapin reading was larger in 2015 (30 points) thanin 1992 (24 points), while the White-Hispanicreading achievement gap in 2015 (20 points) wasnot measurably different from the gap in 1992.(Indicator 9).At grade 4, the White-Black achievement gap inmathematics narrowed from 32 points in 1990 to24 points in 2015; the White-Hispanic gap in 2015(18 points) was not measurably different from thegap in 1990. At grade 8, there was no measurabledifference in the White-Black achievement gap in2015 (32 points) and 1990. Similarly, the WhiteHispanic achievement gap at grade 8 in 2015(22 points) was not measurably different from the gapin 1990. (Indicator 10).In 2015, the percentage of 8th-graders who reportedthat they had zero absences from school in the lastmonth was higher for Asian students (65 percent)than for students who were Pacific Islander(47 percent), Black (45 percent), of Two or moreraces (45 percent), White (44 percent), Hispanic(44 percent), or American Indian/Alaska Native(32 percent). (Indicator 11).A higher percentage of Asian students (45 percent)than of students of any other racial/ethnic groupearned their highest math course credit in calculus.The percentage earning their highest math coursecredit in calculus was also higher for White students(18 percent) than for students of Two or more races(11 percent), Hispanic students (10 percent), andBlack students (6 percent). (Indicator 12).The percentage of students who were 9th-gradersin fall 2009 earning any Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate (AP/IB) credits by 2013was higher for Asian students (72 percent) thanfor White students (40 percent). The percentagesfor Asian and White students were higher than thepercentages for students of any other racial/ethnicgroup. (Indicator 13).Highlights The average number of AP/IB course credits earned inhigh school by Asian students (4.5 credits) was higherthan the average earned by students of any otherracial/ethnic group. Additionally, White studentsearned a higher number of total AP/IB credits in highschool (3.1 credits) than Black students (2.7 credits).(Indicator 13).Student Behaviors and Persistence: Higher overall percentages of Black students(3.0 percent) and Hispanic students (2.9 percent)than of White students (1.8 percent) were retained in2015. (Indicator 14). In 2011–12, a higher percentage of Black publicschool students than of public school students fromany other racial/ethnic group received an out-ofschool suspension (15.4 percent). In contrast, a lowerpercentage of Asian students (1.5 percent) than ofstudents from any other racial/ethnic group receivedan out-of-school suspension. (Indicator 14). In 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12who reported being threatened or injured with aweapon on school property during the previous12 months was higher for American Indian/AlaskaNative (18 percent) and Hispanic students (8 percent)than for White (6 percent) and Asian students(5 percent). The percentage was also higher forBlack students (8 percent) than for White students.(Indicator 15). From 1992 to 2015 the Hispanic status dropout rateamong 16- to 24-year-olds decreased from 32 to9 percent, while the Black rate decreased from 13 to6 percent, and the White rate decreased from 9 to5 percent. Nevertheless, the Hispanic status dropoutrate in 2015 remained higher than the Black andWhite status dropout rates. (Indicator 16 ). From 1990 to 2015, the high school status completionrate for Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds increased from59 percent to 88 percent, while the Black and Whitestatus completion rates increased from 83 percentto 92 percent and from 90 percent to 95 percent,respectively. Although the White-Hispanic andWhite-Black gaps in status completion rates for 18- to24-year-olds narrowed between 1990 and 2015, therates for Hispanic and Black individuals remainedlower than the White rate in 2015. (Indicator 17).

Postsecondary Education: The total college enrollment rate for Asian 18- to24-year-olds has been higher than the rates for theirWhite, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/AlaskaNative peers, as well as their peers of Two or moreraces, in every year between 2005 and 2015, andhigher than their Pacific Islander peers in all but twoof the years during this time span. (Indicator 18).In 2014, a greater percentage of undergraduates werefemale than male across all racial/ethnic groups. Thegap between female and male enrollment was widestfor Black students (62 vs. 38 percent) and AmericanIndian/Alaska Native students (60 vs. 40 percent).The gap was narrowest for Asian students (52 vs.48 percent). (Indicator 19).Among full-time, full-year undergraduate students,85 percent of Black and American Indian/AlaskaNative students and 80 percent of Hispanic studentsreceived any type of grants in 2011–12. Thesepercentages were higher than the percentages ofstudents of Two or more races (73 percent) and ofWhite (69 percent), Pacific Islander (67 percent),and Asian (63 percent) students who received grants.(Indicator 20).In 2011–12, about 72 percent of Black studentsreceived any type of loans, compared with 62 percentof American Indian/Alaska Native students,59 percent of students of Two or more races,56 percent of White, 51 percent of Hispanic students,51 percent of Pac