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Topic:Directed Learning ActivityUsing TransitionsCourse: English BSTUDENT LEARNING OUTCOME (SLO): Paragraphs should be logically organized andfocused.DLA OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: Student will be able to use transitions to emphasize organization ofmajor and supporting ideas in a paragraph.TIME NEEDED TO COMPLETE: 30-45 minutes (You’ll need to complete the independent activityIN THE WRITING CENTER, so be sure you’ve allotted enough time to do so.)INSTRUCTIONS: Get DLA handout, look over directions, go to a work station (computer, desk)to complete the independent activity, and then sign up with a tutor to review the activity.INDEPENDENT ACTIVITY (20-30 minutes):A. Review the attached handout USING TRANSITIONS.B. Practice using what you’ve learned by completing Transition Exercise #1 and TransitionExercise #2.REVIEW WITH TUTOR: (10-15 minutes)1. Go over your answers to the Transition Exercises #1 and #2 with the tutor. With assistancefrom the tutor, identify and review any of the transitions that might still be giving youproblems.2. If you have an essay from class, circle transitions that you’ve used. If you think you needadditional transitions, add them. Explain to the tutor how each transition functions in youressay to signal what’s coming up next or to stress the organization of your ideas.Student NameDate Tutor SignatureIMPORTANT NOTE: You must complete all of the items in the Independent Activity portion of this DLAbefore meeting with a tutor for the Review. If your instructor wants evidence of this completed DLA,return this form to him or her with the tutor’s signature included.

Correction Symbol: transUSING TRANSITIONSTransitions are words that help the reader move smoothly from one idea to another. A transition actslike a road sign or signal flag to let readers know where they are and to tell readers what to expectcoming up next in a paragraph or essay.First, Next,For one thing,For anotherthing,Signals a majorpoint will followFor example,For instance,That is,Signals anexamplecoming upIn addition,Also,Moreover,FurthermoreSignals anothersimilar exampleor idea to followIn conclusion,All in all,Truly,Yes,Signals ons:emphasizeorganizationof yourideas(Examples:leastto mostimportantreasons,time1. To Toemphasizethetheorganizationof yourideas(leastimportantto mostimportantreasons,timeorderof event,an event).orderof anetc.).emphasizerelationshipof oneto another(majorpoint,exampleto illustratea point,2. To Toemphasizethetherelationshipof oneideaideato another(majorpoint,exampleto illustratea point,similaror oppositeideato thepreviousone)similaror oppositeideato thepreviousone)Transitions to show overall ORGANIZATION of ideas:Words to show main points:First, Second, Third, FinallyFirst, Next, LastFor one thing, For another thing, FinallyFirst, More significant (important), Most significant (important)First, Even worse (better), Worst (Best) of allWords to show examples:For example,For instance,Also, in addition, (to add another example)Another (to add another example)

Words to show conclusionTruly,All in all,In conclusion,As you can see,On the whole,Transitions to show RELATIONSHIPS:Words that Compare (show how things are alike): in the same way, and, also, in addition, as well as,both, each of, either, like, similarly, the same, tooExample: Like Enrique, Sylvia is a huge fan of hip hop music.Words that Contrast or Show Exception (give a different or opposite example or idea): although,whereas, but, however, on the other hand, instead, in contrast, yet, unlike, conversely, nevertheless,stillExample: Although Mike loves to watch sports, Jonathan would rather be playing them.Words that Add (give another similar example or idea): furthermore, in addition, moreover, besides,and, alsoExample: Melanie is taking a full load of classes this semester; moreover, she is working two jobs.Words that show Time: first, then, next, at the same time, meanwhile, afterwards, subsequentlyExample: First we picked up drinks and chips from 7-11; then, we bought sandwiches from Subway.Words that show Direction or Location: here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under,above, behind, to the left, to the right, in the distanceExample: Behind the football field was an empty lot where the neighborhood kids liked to play.Words that show Cause and Effect: because, as a result, consequently, thereforeExample: Marcy needed one more unit to qualify for a discount on her car insurance; consequently,she enrolled in an Academic Strategies class.TIPWhen a transition is used to join two words groups that could stand alone as sentences,it’s preceded by a semi colon and followed by a comma.Sentence One: Jolene wanted an “A” in the course.Sentence Two: She didn’t want to work too hard for it.Sentences joined by a transition: Jolene wanted an “A” in the course; however, shedidn’t want to work too hard for it.

Transition Exercise #1A. Look at the following outline for a one-paragraph essay that tells why Oktoberfest is the writer’sfavorite holiday. Each major point in the outline—a reason why the writer likes this holiday--isindicated by a Roman numeral (I, II, III). Each major point is illustrated by 3 specific examples/piecesof information, labeled A, B, and C.Paragraph Outline:Topic Sentence: Oktoberfest is my favorite holiday.I. Big Bear TraditionA. Family always goes up to Big Bear Lake and rents a cabinB. Oktoberfest parties at Convention CenterC. Activities for children and adults – everyone can enjoyII. Crazy costumesA. German costumes – men in lederhosen, women dressed as Bavarian beer garden waitressesB. Crazy hats – chicken hats, alpine hats with a feather, beer hatsC. Silly necklacesIII. EntertainmentA. German bandB. Dances – polka, chicken dance, pizza hut danceC. Contests – beer drinking, log sawing, stein holding LA TimesB. Now look at the following paragraph based on the outline. Notice how the transitions serve toemphasize the organization and relationships between the points and examples.Key to Paragraph with Transitions Identified: Transitions that indicate major points (I, II, III onoutline) are enclosed in boxes. Transitions that indicate examples and additional examples toillustrate the major points are underlined. The transition that identifies the conclusion is circled.

A Unique HolidayOktoberfest is my favorite holiday. One thing that I love about Oktoberfest is my family’stradition of going to Big Bear Lake for a weekend every October. We rent a cabin there so thatwe can attend the Oktoberfest activities that go on at the Big Bear Convention Center all month.The center has activities for children and adults, so everyone from my little cousins to mygrandparents can find something to enjoy. For example, German games, music, foods and drinksare featured. Another thing that I love about Oktoberfest is the costumes people wear. Forinstance, men and boys will dress up in lederhosen, which are leather shorts with built-insuspenders to hold them up. Girls and women like to dress up as Bavarian beer gardenwaitresses, like the woman on the St. Pauli beer label. People who don’t have a costume wearcrazy hats: chicken hats, alpine hats with a feather, and even hats with beer cans on them. Also,people can purchase silly necklaces to wear. Last year, for example, my sister bought a necklacewith a rubber chicken hanging from it. The best thing about Oktoberfest is the entertainment.For example, at least one band actually comes from Germany each year to play music at theConvention Center, and even local bands play “oompah” music. Dancing to this music is a lot offun. Of course there is the traditional polka dancing; in addition, the chicken dance and the PizzaHut dance are very popular. Another source of entertainment is the contests. For instance, thereare beer drinking, log sawing, and stein holding contests for women and men. All in all, thefamily tradition, costumes, and entertainment make Oktoberfest a unique holiday experiencethat I look forward to every year.C. Refer to the paragraph above to fill in the blanks.1. List the three transitions that signal a major idea:2. List two transitions that signal an example:

3. List two transitions that signal an additional example:4. List the transition that signals a conclusion.D. The outline and paragraph that follow identify three types of sources that students can use to helpthem develop a writing assignment. Each type is illustrated by 3 examples. Look at the outline tohelp you identify which ideas are main points and which are examples.Paragraph OutlineTopic Sentence: Students can draw on a variety of sources to help them with writingassignments.I.II.III.Personal experiencesA. conversations with othersB. electronic communicationsC. college skillsExperiences of othersA. interviewsB. overhead conversationsC. television showsResearchA. articles and booksB. internetC. librarianList of transitions:Major ideas:Examples:first,second ,for example,Additional examples:Conclusions:all in all,for one thing,for another thing, finally,for instance,in addition,also,additionally, moreoveron the whole, as one can see,Instructions: In the following paragraph, transitions have been removed. A list of possibletransitions appears above this box. Write an appropriate transition from the list in each of theblanks in the paragraph. Be sure to capitalize the first word if it begins a sentence. You don’t have touse all of the transitions listed, and you may use some of the transitions more than once, but try touse a variety of them. Two have been done for you. (Hint: Look for clues below the blanks.)

Sources for College WritingStudents can draw on a variety of sources to help them with writing assignments., they can draw on personal experiences. ,first major ideaexamplefor an assignment about communication skills, a writer might think about the way he or shecommunicates through conversations with others while at work or at home., a writer might look at ways he or she communicates with othersadditional exampleexampleelectronicallyviaemail or texting or Facebook. Students might findadditional exampleexamples of written communication skills by looking at skills they’ve learned for previouswriting assignments. , student writers can look for ideassecond major ideafrom other people’s experiences. , writers can interview otherexamplestudents or even family members. , a writer may have heardadditional exampleothers talk about this topic, maybe in class. Another source would beadditional exampletelevision shows on the topic of communication. , college writers maythird major ideafind that they need to do some research to complete an assignment. ,examplelots of experts have written articles or books on the topic of communication skills., a search of “communication skills” on the internet mightadditional exampleprovide useful information; moreover , reference librarians can help studentsadditional examplefind research materials in special collections or databases. , college writersneed to be able to draw on a combination of personal experience, observations of others,and research materials to develop their written assignments.Paragraph adapted from John Langan’sExploring Writing: Sentences andParagraphs, 2E.

Transition Exercise #2The following paragraph contrasts the writer’s two cousins. Three major differencesare identified, and each of these is illustrated with several specific examples.1. Read the paragraph and circle any transitions.2. Then write the transitions in the appropriate blanks below.OppositesMy cousins Joanne and Mary couldn’t be more different. First, Joanne is a total nonconformist.For one thing, Joanne’s appearance is bizarre. For example, her hair is partially shaved and dyed pink,and she’s covered in tattoos. In addition, her favorite clothes are ripped and have pictures on them ofthings like skulls. Furthermore, Joanne has a wild personality. For instance, she’ll do outrageous things,like the time she got her nose pierced. Another time, she hitchhiked to San Francisco at 2:00 a.m.Finally, when it comes to interests, Joanne is really into music. She plays the guitar in a punk rock band,and she loves to go to clubs and concerts to check out other bands. In contrast, Mary is the totalopposite of Joanne. For one thing, Mary’s appearance is very conservative. For instance, her naturallyblond hair is usually in a ponytail, and her favorite clothes are sweats or a soccer uniform. Unlike Joanne,Mary is the type of person who likes to follow the rules. For example, she’s never missed a day ofschool, and she can be relied on to be the designated driver any time she goes out to a party. Finally,Mary is a jock. She plays almost every sport, but soccer is her favorite. When she’s not playing sports,she’s watching them on television or in person. Truly, if I didn’t already know that Joanne and Mary arecousins, I would never guess that they’re related to each other because they’re complete opposites.1. What three transitions introduce Joanne’s character traits: nonconformist, wild personality,interests?2. List two transitions used in describing Mary that show contrast:3. List two transitions used to introduce examples:4. List two transitions used to add another example:5. What transition is used to signal the conclusion?